What Is Adenosine Deaminase Or Ada?
Adenosine Deaminase or ADA is an enzyme present in our body whose main function is to aid in purine metabolism. It helps in the breakdown of adenosine from our food and thereby facilitates the turnover of nucleic acids in different body tissues. In humans, the primary function of the ADA test or Adenosine Deaminase test is to keep the immunity system developed and maintained. It is also involved in certain other minor functions such as gestation maintenance, the release of amino acids in the body, neurotransmission, and epithelial cell differentiation.
What Is Ada Test Or Adenosine Deaminase Test?
The ADA Test or Adenosine Deaminase test is done to measure the level of ADA or Adenosine Deaminase in one's pleural fluid. The usual objective of the test is in the diagnosis of the disease Mycobacterium tuberculosis, commonly known as tuberculosis or TB. In very rare circumstances, however, it is done to test other infections.
Why Should You Take The Adenosine Deaminase Test Or Ada Test?
Adenosine Deaminase Test or ADA test is usually recommended by the doctor to either identify or rule out the disease Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients. The test detects tuberculosis in one's pleural fluid and thereby helps in its diagnosis. Under very rare circumstances, the test is used to identify different infections in some other fluids such as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or the peritoneal fluid.
Sometimes, the test is also recommended to rule out the possibilities of tuberculosis in certain patients, such as to people under the following circumstances:
- People who have migrated from areas where the occurrence of tuberculosis is very high
- People who are in close contact with someone who is suffering from tuberculosis
- Pregnant people
- Children who have got positive in a TB screening test
- People who have a very low immune system
- People who work in the hospital, are social workers, etc. who are in close contact with patients of tuberculosis for a long time.
What Is The Ada Normal Range?
The Adenosine Deaminase normal range in both males and females irrespective of the age they belong to is less than 40 U/L.
How Should You Prepare For The Ada Test Or Adenosine Deaminase Test?
There are no specific preparations required for the Adenosine Deaminase test as such. But certain medicines and drugs can affect its level, and that might be reflected in the test results. Therefore, if you are on some medication, make sure you convey that to your doctor and take his or her advice before you head for the test. Depending on your conditions, the doctor will give you instructions.
How Is The Sample Collected?
The sample collected for the Adenosine Deaminase test or ADA test is usually in the form of pleural fluid. The pleural fluid is collected by a healthcare practitioner using the method of thoracentesis, where some excess fluid is removed from one's pleural space to diagnose some abnormality in it.
What Are The Ada Symptoms?
If the level of Adenosine Deaminase or ADA is less than the normal range, the following symptoms are usually observed:
- Excessive and frequent diarrhoea
- Widespread skin rashes and allergies
- Night Sweats
- Excessive and uncontrollable fever accompanied by chills
- Sudden and unexplained weight loss
- A chronic cough
- Prolonged chest pain
It has also been seen that children with ADA deficiency or Adenosine Deaminase deficiency usually experience developmental delay compared to other children. They usually reach the milestones of motor development later than the age when they are supposed to.
What Do The Adenosine Deaminase Test Results Mean?
If the Adenosine Deaminase level in one's pleural fluid is much higher than the ADA normal range, the result is usually indicative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in their pleurae. This being the most common reason, the result can also be due to some other abnormalities such as sarcoidosis, pulmonary embolus, cancer, or lupus. These, however, are seen only when the ADA level is mildly or moderately high.
If the ADA level is low, in all probabilities, the person is not likely to have tuberculosis, but the possibility cannot be ruled out entirely just based on this test.