What is Amphetamine (DOA) - URINE?
Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant drug that increases alertness, self-confidence, and concentration while creating a feeling of increased energy and decreasing appetite. Amphetamine is available by prescription but is also used illicitly as a recreational drug. It is also sometimes used by athletes as a performance-enhancing drug.
Doctors prescribe amphetamine-containing medications, including:
- Adderall (dextroamphetamine/amphetamine)
- Adderall RX (a long-acting form of dextroamphetamine/amphetamine)
- Desoxyn (methamphetamine) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine)
Amphetamines were also once used to treat narcolepsy and obesity, but this is less common today. Amphetamine is a Schedule II drug, meaning it has a high potential for abuse, with use potentially leading to severe psychological or physical dependence. It can be detectable for up to three months with certain tests.
How Long Does It Take to Feel Effects?
The effects of amphetamine take place fairly quickly, often in less than an hour, and are similar to cocaine but last longer.
When taken as prescribed, amphetamine-containing medication can cause the following side effects, which often improve as your body gets used to the drug:
- Dry mouth
- Increased tics
- Loss of appetite
- Moodiness and irritability
- Trouble sleeping
Side effects of amphetamine excessive use or misuse can range from mild to severe and include:
- Breakdown of muscle
- Blockages in small blood vessels (if the drug is crushed and injected)
- Cardiovascular issues (e.g., heart rhythm abnormalities, heart attack, stroke)
- Circulation issues
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased heart rate
- Psychosis and delusions
- Reduced cognitive ability
- Weight loss
How Long Does Amphetamine Last?
The half-life of amphetamine is an average of 10 hours, which means it takes that long for half of the ingested dose to be metabolized and eliminated from the bloodstream. When taken orally, amphetamine peaks at 12 hours. If taken intravenously, the elimination half-life is about 12.2 hours. Adderall XR, a long-acting form of prescription amphetamine, lasts up to 12 hours in most healthy children.
The following is an estimated range of times, or detection windows, during which amphetamine can be detected by various testing methods.1?
Amphetamine can be detected in a urine test for two to five days since the last dose.
Blood tests for amphetamine, which are typically done in a hospital setting, can detect the drug for up to two days.
A saliva test, which uses a special device to extract a sample of saliva and deposit into a tube, can detect amphetamine for one to five days since last use.
Amphetamine, like many other drugs, can be detected with a hair follicle drug test for up to 90 days.
False Positive Testing
The following drugs can produce false-positive results for amphetamines on a urine drug screen:
- Certain antidepressants, such as Wellbutrin (bupropion), Prozac (fluoxetine), trazodone, or Emsam (selegiline)
- Nasal inhalers
- Cold medicines that contain pseudoephedrine and/or promethazine