What is Body Fluid Analysis - Cell count?
This section focuses on the microscopic evaluation of fluids accumulated in body cavities: cerebrospinal, pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal (ascites). Synovial fluids are described below under “Other Body Fluids.” Aspiration followed by chemical, microscopic, cytologic, microbiologic, and, if indicated, flow cytometry examinations should help determine the etiology of accumulated pathologic fluids by providing important information regarding infection, hemorrhage, inflammation, or malignant infiltration. Total cell counts are performed using undiluted (or in the case of very high counts, diluted) body fluids with a hemocytometer. Differential counts are done using a smear following centrifugation (Cytospin) and staining with Wright-Giemsa stain. Bacterial identification and cultures and the chemistry of body fluids are described separately.
Aids in the diagnosis of joint disease, systemic disease, inflammation, malignancy, infection, and trauma, using body fluid specimens
When abnormal cytologic features are present, the laboratory may reflex to a miscellaneous cytology test. Fee codes for that test vary depending on the review process.
Body fluids, other than the commonly analyzed urine and blood, include synovial, pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial fluids. These fluids may be present in increased volumes and may contain increased numbers of normal and abnormal cells in a variety of disease states.
Trauma and hemorrhage may result in increased red and white blood cells; RBCs predominate. WBCs are increased in inflammatory and infectious processes:
- Neutrophils predominate in bacterial infections
- Lymphocytes predominate in viral infections
- Macrophages may be increased in inflammatory and infectious processes
- Eosinophils may be increased in parasitic or fungal infections
No significant cautionary statements