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Details of Magnesium
What is Magnesium ?
Also Known As: Mg, Mag
Magnesium is a mineral that is vital for energy production, muscle contraction, nerve function, and the maintenance of strong bones. It comes into the body through the diet and is absorbed by the small intestine and colon. Magnesium is stored in the bones, cells, and tissues. Normally, only about 1% of total body magnesium is present in the blood and this makes it difficult to get an accurate measurement of total magnesium content from blood tests alone. However, this test is still useful for evaluating a person’s magnesium status.
A wide variety of foods contain small amounts of magnesium, especially green vegetables such as spinach, as well as whole grains and nuts. Foods that have dietary fiber are usually also sources of magnesium. The body maintains its magnesium level by regulating how much it absorbs and how much it excretes or conserves in the kidneys.
Magnesium deficiencies (hypomagnesemia) may be seen with malnutrition, conditions that cause malabsorption, and excess loss of magnesium by the kidneys. Magnesium excess (hypermagnesemia) may be seen with the ingestion of antacids that contain magnesium and with a decreased ability of the kidneys to excrete magnesium.
Someone with mild to moderate magnesium deficiency may have no or few nonspecific symptoms. Persistent or severe deficiencies can cause nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, confusion, muscle cramps, seizures, changes in heart rate, and numbness or tingling. They can also affect calcium metabolism and exacerbate calcium deficiencies. Symptoms of excess magnesium can be similar to those of deficiency and include nausea, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, and an irregular heart rate.
How is it used?
A magnesium test is used to measure the level of magnesium in the blood (or sometimes urine). Abnormal levels of magnesium are most frequently seen in conditions or diseases that cause impaired or excessive excretion of magnesium by the kidneys or that cause impaired absorption in the intestines. Magnesium levels may be checked as part of an evaluation of the severity of kidney problems and/or of uncontrolled diabetes and may help in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders.
Since a low magnesium blood level can, over time, cause persistently low calcium and potassium levels, it may be checked to help diagnose problems with calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and/or parathyroid hormone – another component of calcium regulation.
Magnesium levels may be measured frequently to monitor the response to oral or intravenous (IV) magnesium supplements. The test for magnesium may be ordered, along with calcium and phosphorus testing, to monitor calcium supplementation.